a. Unit Perancang Ekonomi. Tenth Malaysia Plan, 2011-2015 / Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister's Department. Putrajaya, Malaysia. 2010 NRM

Mine the Gap


This topic introduces mined commodities in Malaysia and sheds light on how these products have been important in shaping the socio –economic landscape in Malaysia. Fossil fuels are presented and their contribution to Malaysian economy explored.

Completion Requirements

  • Explore all topic, themes and concepts
  • Read the core texts identified in the Books section

Learning Outcomes

  • Identify Malaysia’s primary commodities
  • Characterise resource use within Malaysia
  • Summarise processes and linkages between natural resources and Malaysian economy
  • Recognise processes affecting Malaysia and the Earth at different temporal and spatial scales
  • Understand implications of natural resource use in the medium to long term.




    • Ahmad, S., Jones, D., 2013. Investigating the Mining Heritage Significance for Kinta District, the Industrial Heritage Legacy of Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, AicE-Bs 2013 London (Asia Pacific International Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies), 4-6 September 2013 105, 445–457. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.047
    • Anwar, S., Sun, S., 2011. Financial development, foreign investment and economic growth in Malaysia. Journal of Asian Economics 22, 335–342. doi:10.1016/j.asieco.2011.04.001
    • Bliss, 2012. Limestone—A Crucial and Versatile Industrial Mineral Commodity.
    • Boynton, R.S., 1966. Chemistry and technology of lime and limestone. Interscience Publishers New York.
    • Cho, G., 1982. Rubber movements in a marketing network: smallholders in Peninsular Malaysia. Applied Geography 2, 189–206. doi:10.1016/0143-6228(82)90042-X
    • NST Online. CM must stop the blame game [WWW Document]. URL http://www.nst.com.my/news/2015/09/cm-must-stop-blame-game
    • Diaz Alejandro, C.F., 1978. Primary commodity exports and economic development; Theory, evidence and a study of Malaysia: John T. Thoburn, (Wiley, London, 1977) pp. xvi + 310, $17.00. Journal of International Economics 8, 593–595. doi:10.1016/0022-1996(87)90014-6
    • Economic Geology The Hard Rock Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, 2012.
    • Emsley, J., 2001. Nature’s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press.
    • Fargione, J., Hill, J., Tilman, D., Polasky, S., Hawthorne, P., 2008. Land clearing and the biofuel carbon debt. Science 319, 1235–1238. doi:10.1126/science.1152747
    • Hassan, N., Hamzah, H.H.M., Zain, S.M.M., 2013. A goal programming approach for rubber production in Malaysia. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 7, 50–53.
    • International Tin Research Institute, 2009. Tin: From ore to ingotURL https://web.archive.org/web/20090322030548/http://www.itri.co.uk/pooled/articles/BF_TECHART/view.asp?Q=BF_TECHART_230527
    • Johari, A., Nyakuma, B.B., Mohd Nor, S.H., Mat, R., Hashim, H., Ahmad, A., Yamani Zakaria, Z., Tuan Abdullah, T.A., 2015. The challenges and prospects of palm oil based biodiesel in Malaysia. Energy 81, 255–261. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2014.12.037
    • Kelly, N., 1993. History of Malaya & South-East Asia. Heinemann Asia.
    • Kidnay, A.J., Parrish, W.R., McCartney, D.G., 2011. Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing, Second Edition. CRC Press.
    • Kumar, R., 1982. Multinationals, mining and development : A Study of the Tin Industry by John Thoburn Gower Publishing Co, Aldershot, Hants, UK, 1981, 192 pp, £11.50. Resources Policy 8, 146–147. doi:10.1016/0301-4207(82)90032-0
    • Lee, K.E., Mokhtar, M., Goh, C.T., Singh, H., Chan, P.W., 2015. Initiatives and challenges of a chemical industries council in a developing country: the case of Malaysia. Journal of Cleaner Production 86, 417–423. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.08.010
    • Mokhtar, N.M., Lau, W.J., Ismail, A.F., Veerasamy, D., 2015. Membrane Distillation Technology for Treatment of Wastewater from Rubber Industry in Malaysia. Procedia CIRP, 12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing – Emerging Potentials 26, 792–796. doi:10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.161
    • Moran, C., 2015. Malaysia’s Bauxite Boom.
    • Ng, K.F., 1990. Forage species for rubber plantations in Malaysia. Proceedings, Forage for plantation crops 49–53.
    • Olsson, O., 2009. On the democratic legacy of colonialism. Journal of Comparative Economics 37, 534–551. doi:10.1016/j.jce.2009.08.004
    • Ong, H.C., Mahlia, T.M.I., Masjuki, H.H., 2011. A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, 639–647. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.043
    • Palmer, D., Joll, M., 2011. Tin Mining in Malaysia, 1800-2000: The Osborne & Chappel Story. Muzium Gopeng.
    • Peterson, P.J., Burton, M.A.S., Gregson, M., Nye, S.M., Porter, E.K., 1979. Accumulation of tin by mangrove species in West Malaysia. Science of The Total Environment 11, 213–221. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(79)90028-7
    • Rahman Mohamed, A., Lee, K.T., 2006a. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy. Energy Policy 34, 2388–2397. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2005.04.003
    • Rahman Mohamed, A., Lee, K.T., 2006b. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy. Energy Policy 34, 2388–2397. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2005.04.003
    • Rahman Mohamed, A., Lee, K.T., 2006c. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy. Energy Policy 34, 2388–2397. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2005.04.003
    • Ramli, N., 1985. The history of offshore hydrocarbon exploration in Malaysia. Energy, Proceedings of the Second EAPI/CCOP Workshop 10, 457–473. doi:10.1016/0360-5442(85)90060-X
    • Ross, C., 2014. The tin frontier: Mining, empire, and environment in Southeast Asia, 1870s-1930s. Environmental History 19, 454–479. doi:10.1093/envhis/emu032
    • Samuel, V.B., Agamuthu, P., Hashim, M.A., 2013. Indicators for assessment of sustainable production: A case study of the petrochemical industry in Malaysia. Ecological Indicators 24, 392–402. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.07.017
    • Shih, C.A., n.d. Ministry turns down request to increase lorry loads. BorneoPost Online.
    • The Malaysian Gas Association, 2013. Industry Annual Review 2012.
    • Thoburn, J., 1978. Malaysia’s tin supply problems. Resources Policy 4, 31–34. doi:10.1016/0301-4207(78)90063-6
    • Weightman, B.A., 2011. Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia, 3 edition. ed. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
    • Yeap, E.B., 1993. Tin and gold mineralizations in Peninsular Malaysia and their relationships to the tectonic development. Journal of Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, Seventh Regional Congress on Geology, Mineral and Energy Resources of Southeast Asia 8, 329–348. doi:10.1016/0743-9547(93)90035-N
    • Zulasmin, W., 2007. Towards a Sustainable Quarry Industry in Malaysia.

    Top of Page

    Copyright © UNMC, 2014